Accessibility, Mobility and Connectivity

Accessibility

It is defined as an access to activities. Accessibility (or just access) refers to the ability to reach desired goods, services, activities and destinations (collectively called opportunities). Access is the ultimate goal of most transportation, except a small portion of travel in which movement is an end in itself (jogging, horseback riding and pleasure drives), with no destination. It is important term in understanding travel time distances and cost between activity locations.

It is also refers to the ease of movement between places. it is the ability to reach opportunities that is beneficial, not movement itself. Accessibility is the quality of travel and takes place at the community and individual level through access management techniques to provide access to various land uses. It focuses on travel time, travel cost, travel options, comfort and risk while addressing the needs of all within the community. Mobility and accessibility are considered the “ying and yang” of transportation. The goal is to increase the overall capability of the transit system while not compromising efficiency and ease of access.

Mobility 

Mobility refers to the movement of people and goods. This recognizes both automobile and transit modes, but still assumes that movement is an end in itself, rather than a means to an end. Mobility is defined as access to transportation. It is important in travel demand models to determine choices available to a consumer. Mobility is the ability and level of ease of moving goods and services. 

Some examples of mobility include: Interstate highways providing designated truck lanes to increase the overall amount of goods transported, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems with bus only lanes that increases the efficiency of moving people while removing automobiles from the roads. Congestion management systems are the trend in mobility due to the lack of funds and the land constraints to keep expanding the transit system infinitely. These systems manage travel demand through innovative ideas to increase volume and capacity. 

Mobility is how far you can go in a given amount of time. Accessibility is how much you can get to in that time. 

Connectivity

Connectivity is the relative location of an object to the destination centers. There are many different levels of hierarchy to connectivity. For example, subdivisions with many dead end cul-de-sacs may have poor connectivity with surrounding land uses. It may take a long time for a family living at the end of a cul-de-sac to get out of the neighborhood and to the main road right behind their house. The destination might not be that far away by distance, but by travel time it is. Traditional downtowns on the other hand usually have higher connectivity with surrounding neighborhoods. Residential areas designed with streets in a grid format adjacent to the downtown are often well connected with the business district and decrease the travel time and congestion.

    

Important Functions of Transportation Network

Cities play a vital role in promoting economic growth and prosperity of a nation. The development of cities largely depends upon their physical, social and institutional infrastructure. Transport demand in most Indian cities has increased substantially, due to increases in population as a result of both natural increase and migration from rural areas and smaller towns. Urban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labour, consumers and freight between multiple origins and destinations. The primary function of transportation is the transfer of messages and information. It is also needed for rapid movement of troops in case of emergency and finally movement of persons and goods. The political decision of construction and maintenance of roads has resulted in the development of transportation system. The entire economic, social and political life of a modern country depends upon an efficient system of transport. The benefits of transport can be studied under the following categories. 

I) Economic Benefits/Functions 

The economic effects of good transport facilities are as follows. 

1) Extensive Market 

Transport helps in the assembly of raw materials and distribution of finished goods. It makes it possible to move goods from the place of production to the place where they are to be consumed. In the earlier days, there were only local markets due to the absence of safe means of transport. Now a days, trade is not restricted to the boundaries of a nation, but has spread throughout the world. Development of the efficient means of transport has knit together all the nations of the world into the one big world market. Even the perishable articles like fish, dairy products, meat etc. are being transported to distant places of the world. But for good transport facilities, such a development in trade and commerce would not have been possible. 

2) Mobility of Labour and Capital 

Transport reduces the rigours of immobility of certain factors of production. Mobility of labour and capital increases with the development of transport. An efficient network of transport services encourages the movement of people from one place to another. Labour can migrate to the place where they can get better job opportunities, which reduces the exploitation of workers. The development of Australia and United States would not have been possible without immigrations from Europe. With the development of transport, the investment of capital is also channelized to new lands and other places of the world. 

3) Specialization and Division of Labour 

Transport helps each region and country to make optimum and efficient use of its national resources. Each region can concentrate on production of those goods for which its resources are best suited. Thus, movement of goods and people from one place to another leads to specialization and division of labour which results in minimum wastage of resources and reduction in the cost of production. 

4) Economies of Large Scale Production 

Transport has helped the development of large scale industries. It would not have been possible for these industries to procure raw materials, gather large number of workers and sell the finished goods, without the efficient facilities of transport. Thus, transport has made possible the various economies of large scale production which tend to reduce unit cost of production and help the economy. 

5) Stability in Prices 

Transport facilities iron out wild fluctuations. Goods can be transported to places where there is scarcity and the prices are high from places where there is surplus and the prices are low. Such movement of goods helps in maintaining uniform prices throughout the country and further tends to equalize the prices of goods throughout the world.

6) Benefits to Consumers 

Improved means of transport benefit the consumers in many ways. The consumers can enjoy the benefit of use of many goods, which cannot be produced at their place, by transporting such goods from other distant places. Further, it helps in reducing the cost of goods of consumers and increases their purchasing power. 

7) Employment Opportunities and Increase in the National Income 

The various means of transport provide employment to millions of people throughout the world. The economic development of a country depends upon the improved means of transport. Thus, transport contributes substantially to the national income of the nations. 

8) Discouragement to Monopoly 

The scope of total income is extended by the development of the means of transport. As commodities can be quickly transported from one place to another, local producers cannot charge prices at their own will. This discourages monopoly and encourages competition. 

9) Development of Agriculture 

Transport has helped in the development of agriculture also. The business of agricultural products has grown to such a large extent only do to the efficient means of transport. It would not have been possible to use modern techniques of agriculture, improved quality of seeds and fertilizers, etc., but for good transport facilities. 

10) Industrial Development 

Transport facilitates the industrial development of a country. It helps the growth of industries by making available various factors of production. It would not have been possible to make such rapid industrial development without efficient means of transport. 

11) Increase in National Wealth 

Transport helps in increasing the national wealth of a country by facilitating agriculture, industry, trade and commerce. 

II) Social Benefits/Functions 

Transport has substantially influenced the life of the people. The various social advantages of an efficient transport are as follows. 

1) Discovery of New Lands 

Transport has helped the discovery of new lands and the growth of cities and urban areas. Due to the availability of long distance cheap transport, land has been utilized to the maximum advantage of the people all over the world. Even the waste lands are now being used. It also increases the value of land. 

2) Diffusion of population 

It reduces the concentration of population in the area of production. People can reach from distant places if there is an adequate and efficient system of transport. 

3) High Standard of Living 

Transport helps in the increase of production thereby raising the standard of living of the people. It is possible only through the means of transport that the ‘five M’s - Men, Material, Money, Machinery and Management’ can be assembled at the place of production. So, industries depend upon efficient system of transport and it creates new industries.

4) Mutual Understanding 

It removes the problem of distance, helps the people of different regions to come in contact with each other, encourages exchange of ideas and culture and promotes co-operation, understanding the cordial relations, amongst the people of the world. 

5) Ability to Face Natural Calamities 

Transport enables the society to face natural calamities such as famine, earthquake, drought, floods, etc. In such emergencies, commodities can quickly be transported to the places of mishap. 

6) Broadens the Outlook of the People 

Transport promotes mutual understanding. It has broadened the outlook of the people of the world and has knitted together all the nations of the world. 

7) Destroys Ignorance 

It promotes culture, removes prejudices and destroys ignorance. It helps in spreading knowledge and furthering the cause of education. 

III) Political Benefits/Functions 

In addition to the economic and social advantages, transport enjoys a great political significance. 

1) National Unity, Integration and Peace 

Transport helps in maintaining internal peace and national unity of a country. It brings about national integration. A vast country like India cannot be held together without efficient means of transport. Transport encourages economic and political interdependence by promoting specialization and division of labour and this strengthens the need for unity and national integration. 

2) National Defense 

Transport is essential for strengthening the national defense of a country. In the days of war, it is only through improved means of transport that the defense personnel, material and equipment can be moved rapidly to the border areas. Defense of a country, therefore, necessitates the existence of improved transport facilities. 

3) Political Awakening 

Efficient means of transport help in creating political awakening in the people and the growth of civilization. 

4) Source of Revenue 

Transport helps in increasing the national wealth and income of a country. It is also a source of revenue to the Government. 

    

Urban Structure and its Characteristics

Urban structure is the arrangement of land use in urban areas. Urban planners, economists and geographers have developed several models that explain where different types of people and businesses tend to exist within the urban setting. Urban structure can also refer to urban spatial structure, which concerns the arrangement of public and private space in cities and the degree of connectivity and accessibility. 

The term “urban form” is used to describe a city’s physical characteristics. It refers to the size, shape, and configuration of an urban area or its parts. How it will be understood, structured or analyzed depends on scale. Characteristics of the urban form range from at a very localized scale, features such as building materials, facades and fenestration to at a broader scale, housing type, street type, and their spatial arrangement or layout.

Elements of urban structure includes the following.

  • Natural environment 
  • Topography
  • Soil types (Bearing capacity) 
  • Water courses (Rivers, streams and lakes) 
  • Types of vegetation 
  • Climate and micro climate 
  • Environment characteristics
  • Landscape features 

Types of Urban Structures/Patterns

1) Grid Iron/Rectangular Pattern

The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patterns with discontinuous streets. E.g. Plan of Chandigarh city. 
Costs for streets depend largely on four variables: street width, street length, block width and pavement width. Two inherent characteristics of the grid plan are frequent intersections and orthogonal geometry, facilitate pedestrian movement. The geometry helps with orientation and way finding and its frequent intersections with the choice and directness of route to desired destinations. 
In ancient Rome, the grid plan method of land measurement was called centuriation. The grid plan dates from antiquity and originated in multiple cultures; some of the earliest planned cities were built using grid plans.

Advantages 

  • Shorter routes 
  • Easy to extend 
  • Easy to find places 

Disadvantages 

  •  Associated with traffic congestion 
  •  Many intersections/robots
  •  Time consuming
  •  Fuel consuming
  •  Road rage/frustration

 Grid system

2) Radial/Concentric system 

Radial design offers a method for organizing visual material by arranging it around a central point. Features of radial city pattern include 
  • Inner outer ring roads linked by radiating roads 
  • Core has the business area 
  • Industrial area interspersed within the residential 
  • Periphery has green belts 

Advantages 

  • A direct line of travel 
  • Centrally directed flows 
  • Economics of a single point or origin point 
  • Less intersections 
  • Easier flow of traffic 
  • Aesthetic appeal 

Disadvantages 

  • Central congestion 
  • Local flow problems 
  • Difficult building sites 
  • Unplanned growth can create traffic problems
Radial/Concentric system

3) Linear System

The linear city was an urban plan for an elongated urban formation. The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip. As the city expanded, additional sectors would be added to the end of each band, so that the city would become ever longer, without growing wider. The sectors of a linear city would be 
  • A purely segregated zone for railway lines 
  • A zone of production and communal enterprises, with related scientific, technical and educational institutions 
  • A residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band of residential buildings and a "children's band" 
  • A park zone 
  • An agricultural zone with gardens and state run farms 

Advantages 

  • High accessibility 
  • Adaptability to linear growth 
  • Useful along limited edge 

Disadvantages 

  • Very sensitive to blockage 
  • Requires control of growth 
  • Lack of focus 
Linear system

4) Multi Centered System 

City grows from several independent points rather than from one central business district. 

Advantages 

  • Optional locations for focal activities and system terminals 
  • Good psychological orientation 
  • Adaptability to existing conditions 

Disadvantages 

  • Depends on stability to key locations 
  • Potential accessibility problems 
  • Tendency to dilute focal activities

Multi centered system

5) Irregular System 

No set pattern. It develops due to relief. e.g. goes around hilly areas. 

Advantages 

  • Creates aesthetic appeal due to different roads 
  • Less traffic congestion 
  • Less intersections 

Disadvantages 

  • Can get lost 
  • Travel longer distances
Irregular system

    

City as a Physical Entity, Social Entity and Political Entity

 Physical Entity (Urban Area)

The first generic form of the city is the physical expanse or area of continuously built-up urbanization. The urban area is generally observable on a clear night from a high flying airplane. The urban area is simply the extension of urbanization. The urban area is not defined by jurisdictional boundaries, though where national statistical authorities define it is necessary to rely on building blocks such as census tracts and municipalities. 

Like metropolitan areas, urban areas can extend across sub national jurisdictional lines (such as state, provincial or regional boundaries) or in special cases, international boundaries. Various terms are used by national statistical authorities in the United Nations.

An urban area will never be the same as a municipality. Usually it will include many municipalities, though in the case of many geographically large municipalities, such as Shanghai, the urban area will be smaller than the core municipality. The Chicago urban area (population over 8,000,000) includes the city of Chicago and many other cities. Some nations formally designate urban areas, which are called “urbanized areas” in the United States, “unites urbaines” in France, “urban areas” in the United Kingdom and Canada, “urban centers” in Australia and “urban agglomerations” in India. An urban area is also an agglomeration. A conurbation is an urban area that forms when two or more urban areas grow together. Four definitions of the city are considered here. 

The first involves the city as a physical entity, or the area devoted to primarily urban uses. This Built City (BC) is perhaps the most familiar perception of the city, largely because it is relatively easy to visualize. The BC forms the core or basis of each of the other three definitions of the city. These are as follows: The Consumption City (an area within which most of the consumption of goods and services occurs in the BC); The Employment City (an area in which the bulk of the employed workforce works in the BC); and The Workforce City (an area upon which the BC draws for a given majority of its labour requirements). These four definitions of the city are brought together and shown to be interrelated.

The Functional City (Metropolitan Area)

The second generic form of the city is the functional expanse, which is also the economic expanse. The metropolitan area includes the built-up urban area and the economically connected territory to the outside. The economic relationship is generally defined by patterns of commuting to work into the urban area. Thus, metropolitan areas constitute labor market areas. Metropolitan areas can extend over subnational boundaries, except in rare cases where there is not free movement of labor (such as between Hong Kong and Shenzhen in China). Further, where free movement of labor is permitted by international agreements, metropolitan areas may cross national boundaries (such as in the European Union or between Switzerland and France, in the Basel and Geneva urban areas). 

Political Entity 

Political entities are basically systems of governing authority organized as governmental power structures. Empires, nation-states, city-states, and kingdoms are just a few examples of political entities. Most political entities are types of states, with the exception of stateless nations and autonomous regions. It is also important to note that when discussing a nation, we're referring to a group of people with a shared language, religion, ethnicity or other cultural factors. 

Social Entity 

Social entity is an ideological concept in which a society or social structure is viewed as a "living organism". From this perspective, typically, the relation of social features, e.g. law, family, crime, etc., are examined as they interact with other features of society to meet social needs. All elements of a society or social organism have a function that maintains the stability and cohesiveness of the organism. 

    

City as an Organism

An organism is anything that has life i.e. Living . Every city has some characteristics that can be compared to that of a living organism some places of a city act as organs of an organism some bodies (legislature, judiciary, etc.) Function like organs of an organism. 

The system of life is growing in size and in complexity, and so do the infrastructures sustaining it. In 2008 the point was reached where more than 50% of the world population lives in cities. That percentage is growing. By 2030, over 60% of the world’s population – nearly five billion people – will be living in urban area. Initially the two life-essential resources for cities were water and food. As cities grew and as technology evolved, the supply of these resources became dependent on energy for processing, for pumps and for transportation. In the process, cities and their resources evolved into a system of life energized by the individuals that populate cities, and fuel its dynamics. 

A city protects a cluster of houses. A house protects a cluster of humans and a human protects a cluster of organs. All the way down to the bacteria, cooperative clusters are formed that give the participants a more secure way to live. A house is a body. It supports the body but it also contains all the bodily functions. If we provide the house with these bodily functions the house becomes more sustainable. It is possible to regenerate the waste that the humans produce into energy just as the liver is doing in our body.

Body parts

City parts

Heart

City centre (CBD)

Blood vessels

Roads

Brain

Legislature

Spinal chord

Secretariat

Nerves

People

Mouth

Media  Includes newspapers, news channels

Ears

Judiciary

Nose, lungs

Green spaces  parks, gardens

Kidneys

Drainage system

Hands

Services and facilities

For example, Secunderabad is a city located in the state of Telangana to the north of Hyderabad. This city is compared to as a living organism Heart:-- Secunderabad - always busy, connected to all parts of the city. Blood vessels: Roads- means to connect the heart to every other part of the city. Skin:- Jawaharlal Nehru Outer ring road- all around the city; outer covering. Alimentary canal:- P V Narsimharao Expressway- longest expressway of India. Nervous System: Administration Brain: Legislature- law making. Spinal chord :- Secretariat- body which makes sure that laws are implemented. Nerves:- People- who elect representatives to enable reach of their problems to the legislature. Eyes. Birla Mandir One of the most prominent highest points of Hyderabad. View of the entire city from the top of the temple. 

Mouth:- Media includes newspapers, news channels and their team- journalists; reporters; cameramen; creative team Local channels that promote tourism of the city and highlight culture of Hyderabad; radio channels. Ears:- Judiciary; mainly lawyers Listen to problems of the people Receptors: High court for the state of Andhra Pradesh and the state of Telangana. Respiratory system:- Nose, lungs, Green spaces parks, gardens. Lakes: Hussain Sagar Tank bund, Necklace road. Two cricket stadiums and many football grounds. Skeleton:- Metro rail Connects parts of the city. Bones join during the course of time- Metro was built in parts and joined later to form a continuous phase. Legs:- Modes of transportation predominant: APSRTC (now TSRTC) buses. Hands:- Services and facilities. Electricity and water supply educational institutions hospitals functions of GHMC. Shoulders;- Hi tech city carry weights of the economy of the city. Hyderabad as an IT hub - IT sector- major contributor to the economy of Hyderabad. Kidneys ;-- Drainage system, collection of drainage, disposal or purification of the drains. Hair:- Tourismtourist attractions, add beauty to the city, Major attractions: Charminar, Golconda fort and Ramoji film City, Snow world, Hussain Sagar- Buddha statue and adjoining parks, Nehru zoo, etc.

    

Patrick Geddes Town Planning Concept

Patrick Geddes is also known as “Father of Modern Town Planning”. Sir Patrick Geddes was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner. He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of urban planning and sociology. 

He introduced the concept of "region" to architecture and planning and coined the term "conurbation". Geddes developed a new approach to regional and town planning based on the integration of people and their livelihood into the environmental givens of the particular place and region they inhabit. Geddes illustrated the section using the locally available landscapes of Edinburgh and its hinterland. The Geddes Plan for Tel Aviv was the first master city plan for Tel Aviv. 

Inspired by the French sociologist Frederic Le Playʼs (1802–1886) triad of ʻLieu, Travail, Familleʼ — which Geddes translated to “Work, Place, Folkʼ — Geddes developed a new approach to regional and town planning based on the integration of people and their livelihood into the environmental givens of the particular place and region they inhabit. He emphasized that sound planning decisions have to be based on a detailed regional survey, which established an inventory of a regionʼs hydrology, geology, flora, fauna, climate and natural topography, as well as its social and economic opportunities and challenges. As such the Geddesian methodology pioneered the bioregional planning approach more than 70 years before the emergence of bioregionalism.

 Geddesian Triad


    

Precincts

A precinct plan is a planning tool that sets out a vision for the future development trajectory of an area. It establishes a planning and management framework to guide development and land-use change and aims to achieve environmental, social and economic objectives. 

Precinct commonly refers in planning to a geographically smaller area with specific characteristics that requires detailed planning within the broader administrative boundaries of a municipality and the exact size of a precinct will thus vary. The precinct plan aims to take into account all of the issues affecting the area, including its buildings and spaces, land uses, activities and transport. Based on the baseline situation study carried out one is able to then determine what is working well and how this can be enhanced, and how the area can grow and change in the future. Precinct Plans provides clear strategies and detailed actions for how this can be achieved through the implementation over time. 

Essentially, the proposals in a precinct plan will inform the overall development of the precinct in terms of medium to long-term strategic interventions required to promote the development of spatially and economically integrated precincts that are attractive, efficient, convenient, safe and effectively managed. The interventions will also promote restructuring, sustainable communities, economic development, poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability. The four stages of precinct plan include 

  • Vision for future 
  • Define aim 
  • Analysis of area 
    • Define issues 
    • Find solution 
  • Implementation of strategies

    

Chandigarh City Planning by Le Corbusier

Chandigarh is one of the most significant urban planning experiments of the 20th century. Chandigarh was the dream city of India's first Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru. After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was split between (mostly Sikhs) East Punjab in India and (mostly Muslim) West Punjab in Pakistan. The Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition. 

Therefore, American planner and architect Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki were tasked to design a new city called "Chandigarh" in 1949. Novicki was tragically killed in an air accident and Mayer decided to discontinue. Thereafter, the work was assigned to a team of architects led by Le Corbusier in 1951. 

The master plan which Albert Mayer produced for Chandigarh assumes a fan-shaped outline, spreading gently to fill the site between the two river beds. At the head of the plan was the capitol, the seat of the state government and the city centre was located in the heart of the city. Two linear parklands could also be noticed running continuously from the northeast head of the plain to its southwestern tip. A curving network of main roads surrounded the neighborhood units called Super blocks. First phase of the city was to be developed on the north-eastern side to accommodate 1,50000 residents and the second phase on the south-western side for another 350,000 people.

Fan shaped plan for Chandigarh by Albert Mayer

The Master plan prepared by Le Corbusier was broadly similar to the one prepared by the team of planners led by Albert Mayer and Mathew Nowicki except that the shape of the city plan was modified from one with a curving road network to rectangular shape with a grid iron pattern for the fast traffic roads, besides reducing its area for reason of economy. Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined part. 

  •  Head (The capitol complex) 
  •  Heart (The city centre) 
  •  Lungs (The leisure valley, innumerable open spaces and sector greens) 
  •  Intellect (The cultural and educational institutions) 
  •  Circulatory system (The network of roads, the 7Vs) 
  •  Viscera (The industrial area) 

Le Corbusier divided the city into 63 “Sectors”. Each Sector (what had been named an “Urban Village” in Mayer’s plan) or the neighbored unit, is quite similar to the traditional Indian 'mohalla'. The primary module of the city’s design is a sector, of size 800×1200 m. Each sector is a self sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 2000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area. Convenient walking distance for social services like schools and shopping centers are provided.

 Chandigarh plan by Le Corbusier

The roads of the city were classified into seven categories, known as the system of 7 Vs. 

  •  V-1 Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to other towns 
  •  V-2 Arterial roads 
  •  V-3 Fast vehicular roads 
  •  V-4 Free flowing shopping streets 
  •  V-5 Sector circulation roads 
  •  V-6 Access roads to houses 
  •  V-7 Footpaths and cycle tracks 
The residential buildings were governed by a mechanism known as 'frame control' created by the municipal administration to control their facades. This fixed the building line and height and the use of building materials. Certain standard sizes of doors and windows are specified and all the gates and boundary walls must conform to standard design. 
Chandigarh has four Main work centers – The capitol complex in the north east – The educational institutes in the north west – The city centre in the heart – The industrial area in the south east. The educational, cultural and medical facilities are spread all over city, however, major institutions are located in Sectors 10, 11, 12, 14 and 26. The Capital complex, Sector 1, comprises three architectural masterpieces, the “Secretariat", the "High Court" and the "Legislative Assembly". 
The bus stops are provided each time at 200m so as to serve the four pedestrian entrances into a sector. Thus, the transit traffic takes place out of the sectors: the sectors being surrounded by four wall-bound car roads without openings (V3). All commercial buildings located in the City Centre and commercial or institutional buildings located along V-2 roads were subjected to controls. He allocated nearly 30% of the city to parks and recreational areas. With the development of the city, it is also confronting some problems because population increased in city due to high rate of migration to cities and due to that water supply demand is increased, sanitation problem occurs and slum development get started.