Le Corbusier Concept

Le Corbusier was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930.

Philosophy of Le Corbusier 

  • No matter how open and green, cities should be frankly urban, urban surroundings are to be definitely contrasting with rural surroundings. 
  • Densities are in themselves not a problem. Congestion and slum conditions in the cities are due to excessive coverage, persistence of old street patterns and unrestricted land speculation 
  • Slums exist because of the failure to provide the proper surrounding for high density living. 
  • He protests against strict functionalism. “Human creations that survive are those which produce emotions, and not those which are only useful”.

1) Concentric City 

A city for 3 million people was proposed by Le Corbusier in 1922, which was based on four principles. 
  • Decongestion of the centre of the cities 
  • Augmentation of the density 
  • Enlargement of the means of circulation 
  • Increase in the number of parks and open spaces 

Three Zones in Concentric City 

  • Central city 
  • Protected green belt 
  • Factories and satellite towns
 Concentric city
  • It consists of rectangle containing two cross axial highways. At its heart was a six-level transport interchange – centre for motor, rail lines (underground and main line railways) and roof of which is air-field. 
  • 24 cruciform skyscrapers - 60 storied office building with density 1200 ppa and covers 5% of the ground. 
  • Surrounding skyscrapers was apartment district – 8 storey buildings arranged in zigzag rows with broad open spaces with density of 120 ppa (people per acre). 
  • The buildings in the central area were raised on stilts (pilotis) so as to leave panoramas of unbroken greenery at ground level. 
  • The city espoused space, speed, mass production and efficient organization, but also offered combination of natural and urban environments.

Criticism 

  • Class based conception of life – different classes being separately housed. 
  • Doubts were expressed about the scale and degree of centralization. 
  • Critics attacked its focus on the central city, where land values were highest and dislocations most difficult. 
  • The creation of vast empty spaces in place of close knit streets with their varied civic life.

2) Linear Industrial City

  • Leaving the ‘evils of the sprawling town’, the new industrial communities are located along the main arteries of transportation – water, rail and highway connecting the existing cities
  • Factories are placed along the main arteries, separated from the residential section by the highway and a green strip 
  • The residential areas include the ‘horizontal garden town’ of single houses and vertical apartment buildings with civic center. 
  • Sports, entertainments, shopping and office facilities are distributed in this district and all community facilities are placed within ample open space. 

3) Radiant City 

Le Corbusier rearranged the key features of the concentric city. The basic ideas of free circulation and greenery were still present, but the juxtaposition of different land uses had changed. For example, the central area was now residential instead of a skyscraper office core. 

    

MARS (Modern Architectural Research Group) Plan

In the inter war years, there was a war between two rival camps for urban planning, the highdensity housing with lots of communal space, or low-density with lots of private space. One group was known as The Modern Architectural Research Group (MARS), founded in 1933, with luminaries as varied as Morton Shand, Wells Coates, Maxwell Fry, F. R. S. Yorke, Ove Arup and John Betjeman. 

As an organization though, it is probably most famous for a radical plan for the redevelopment of London, the details of which were published the Architectural Review in June 1942. They pretty much planned to rebuild London in its entirety – the entire city was to be rebuilt from scratch. Away with haphazard layouts they provided with an organized “herringbone” arrangement of homes, factories and facilities. 

Although the report was presented in terms of preventing the further expansion of the built-up area of London and planning for new growth, it was suggested that redevelopment might extend the linear city corridors inwards as well, slowly stripping away the mass of buildings that had built up over centuries to create a utopian linear city.

MARS plan

The plan included a “vertebra” of the herringbone that comprised the areas of administrative and commercial buildings, with the docks and industries at its ends. The “bones” are the residential areas with the local industries at their ends. Between the residential ribbons are parks and recreation grounds would have been where the schools and playing fields were to be located. All parts of the city would have been then connected by a railway, whose stations were to be within walking distance even from the remote parts of the residential area. The long-distance railways were then to be connected by means of a belt which forms a traffic ring to the north and south, meeting in a central line where the main passenger stations are located. 

One of the main criticisms of the plan wasn’t just how utterly bonkers it was, but that the finer details were less than ideal. For example, placing factories at the ends of the spines meant more travel was needed to go between residential and work zones within the city. Blending them more closely would reduce travel times the critics argued. 

The plan was overshadowed by the release of a much more famous planning document, Abercrombie’s County of London Plan which came out two years later, in 1944 and was seen as a blueprint for post-war rebuilding, not just of London but also other bomb damaged cities. The welcoming of Abercrombie, and the rejection of MARS pretty much signed the death warrant for MARS, and its direction changed in subsequent years. The group finally disbanded in 1957. 

    

Neighbourhoods

The term neighborhood is often used to describe the sub divisions of urban or rural settlements. In its purest definition, a neighborhood is the vicinity in which people live. Neighbourhood unit idea was proposed by Clarence Perry in 1929. Neighborhoods have some particular physical or social characteristics that distinguish them from the rest of the settlement. The clustering of these neighborhoods has formed towns, villages, and cities. The Neighbourhood unit plan in brief is the effort to create a residential neighbourhood to meet the needs of family life in a unit related to the larger whole but possessing a distinct entity. 

Perry described the neighborhood unit as that populated area which would require and support an elementary school with an enrolment of between 1,000 and 1,200 pupils. This would mean a population of between 5,000 and 6,000 people. Developed as a low density dwelling district with a population of 10 families per acre, the neighborhood unit would occupy about 160 acres and have a shape which would render it unnecessary for any child to walk a distance of more than one-quarter mile to school. 

About 10% of the area would be allocated to recreation, and through traffic arteries would be confined to the surrounding streets, internal streets being limited to service access for residents of the neighborhood. The unit would be served by shopping facilities, churches, library and a community center, the latter being located in conjunction with the school. Perry outlined six basic principles of good neighborhood design. As may be understood, these core principles were organized around several institutional, social and physical design ideals. 

  1. Major arterials and through traffic routes should not pass through residential neighborhoods. Instead these streets should provide boundaries of the neighborhood 
  2. Interior street patterns should be designed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs, curved layout and light duty surfacing so as to encourage a quiet, safe and low volume traffic movement and preservation of the residential atmosphere 
  3. The population of the neighborhood should be that which is required to support its elementary school 
  4. The neighborhood focal point should be the elementary school centrally located on a common or green, along with other institutions that have service areas coincident with the neighborhood boundaries 
  5. The radius of the neighborhood should be a maximum of one quarter mile thus precluding a walk of more than that distance for any elementary school child 
  6. Shopping districts should be sited at the edge of neighborhoods preferably at major street intersections.
Neighbourhood unit

Principles of Neighbourhood Planning 

1) Size 

The town is divided into selfcontained units or sectors of 10,000 populations. This is further divided into smaller units called neighbourhood unit with 2,000 to 5,000 based on the requirement of one primary school. The size of the unit is therefore limited to about 1 to 1.5 sq km i.e. within walkable distance of 10 to 15 minutes. 

2) Boundaries 

The unit should be bounded on all its sides by main road, wide enough for traffic. 

3) Protective Strips 

These are necessary to protect the neighbourhood from annoyance of traffic and to provide suitable facilities for developing parks, playgrounds and road widening scheme in future. These are also called Minor Green Belts. 

4) Internal Streets 

The internal streets are designed to ensure safety to the people and the school going children in particular, since the mothers are anxious every day till the safe return of the child. The internal streets should circulate throughout the unit with easy access to shops and community centres. 

5) Layout of Buildings 

To encourage neighbourhood relation and secure social stability and balance, houses to suit the different income group should be provided such as single family houses, double family houses, cottages, flats, etc. 

6) Shopping Centres 

Each shop should be located on the circumference of the unit, preferably at traffic junctions and adjacent to the neighbourhood units. 

7) Community Centres 

Each community will have its centre with social, cultural and recreational amenities. 

8) Facilities 

All public facilities required for the family for their comfort and convenience should be within easy reach. These include the primary school, temple, club, retail shop, sport centre, etc. These should be located within 1km in the central place so as to form a nucleus to develop social life of the unit.

Neighborhood in the Contemporary Urban Context 

The concept of neighborhood unit in traditional built environments and rural settlements constituted a strong sense of attachment, identity, admittance and belonging for inhabitants. Neighborhood feeling in contemporary urban environments is less dependent on the sharing of common close physical residential environment. Impacts of urbanization, rise of mass society, modernization, improved inter connectivity and the consequent increased socio-spatial mobility in the neighborhood has been highly destructive. Increasing mobility and transportation facilities have opened up new possibilities, thereby disregarding the benefits expected of a neighborhood. 
Remote activities and changed lifestyles of dwelling occupants thus become the basic factors that shape the social environment. This issue causes segregation of the social environment from the immediate physical environment. Most of the current housing approaches concentrate on the physical attributes of single dwelling units and exclude the fact that the dwelling units rarely stand alone in a given physical space. The high-rise settlement blocks with inadequately planned physical environment characterize most of the contemporary developments. This however does not diminish the importance of the neighborhood unit.

    

Radburn Concept

Radburn is located within the Borough of Fair Lawn, Bergen County, New Jersey, 12 miles from New York City. Radburn, a planned community, was started in 1929 by the City Housing Corporation from the plans developed by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright. It is America’s first garden community, serving as a worldwide example of the harmonious blending of private space and open area. The intent was to build a community which made provisions for the complexities of modern life, while still providing the amenities of open space, community service and economic viability. The community was intended to be a self-sufficient entity, with residential, commercial and industrial areas each supplementing the needs of others. 

Radburn was designed to occupy one square mile of land and house some 25,000 residents. However, the Great Depression limited the development to only 149 acres. It includes 430 single family homes, 90 row houses, 54 semi-attached houses and a 93 apartment unit, as well as a shopping center, parks and amenities. It also consist of 

  •  Residential areas 
  •  149 acres of interior parks 
  •  Walkways 
  •  2 swimming pools
  •  4 tennis courts 
  •  Playgrounds 
  •  Archery plaza and a school 
  •  2 outdoor basketball courts 
  •  A community center, which houses administrative offices, library, gymnasium, clubroom, service and maintenance areas

Features of Radburn City 

  •  Super Block 
  •  Specialized Highway system 
  •  Complete separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic 
  •  Park as backbone of the neighborhood 
  •  Turned around houses 

Components of Radburn City 

Decentralized, self-contained settlements, organized to promote environmental considerations by conserving open space, harnessing and promoting community life. The main components include 
  •  Hierarchical transportation systems 
  •  Cul-de-sacs 
  •  Footpath systems 
  •  Underpasses 
  •  Shopping center 
  •  Ideal size of 30,000 people 
  •  Homogeneity 
  •  Large-scale development 
  •  Clustered superblock 
  •  Mixed-use 
  •  Interior park
Separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic - This was accomplished by doing away with the traditional grid-iron street pattern and replacing it with an innovation called the superblock. The superblock is a large block of land surrounded by main roads. The houses are grouped around small cul-de-sacs (dead end streets), each of which has an access road coming from the main roads. Finally, to further maintain the separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, a pedestrian underpass and an overpass, linking the superblocks, were provided. The system was so devised that a pedestrian could start at any given point and proceeds on foot to school, stores or church without crossing a street used by automobiles. 
The cul-de-sac or dead-end street came into use to eliminate through traffic in a positive manner. Cul-de-sac terminates in a circular to retain their inherent advantages, they should be short-a maximum length of 450 feet is recommended. Long cul-de-sacs, induce accelerated traffic speeds and render access for service and fire protection more complicated. It eliminates the necessity for the turnaround and provides the continuous circulation that is required by some communities to assure no interference with the accessibility of fire protection and other services.
Radburn city

The houses were oriented in reverse of the conventional placement on the lot. Kitchens and garages faced the road, living rooms and bedrooms turned toward the garden. Pathways provided uninterrupted pedestrian access to a continuous park strip, which led to large common open spaces within the center of the superblock. Since automobiles were given limited access to the ‘backs’ of the houses, the ‘fronts’ of the house were relatively quiet, therefore, the bedrooms were always placed on this side of the house. 
The parks were secured without additional cost to the residents. The savings in expenditures for roads and public utilities at Radburn, as contrasted with the normal subdivision, paid for the parks. The Radburn type of plan requires less area of street to secure the same amount of frontage. In addition, for direct access to most houses, it used narrower roads of less expensive construction, as well as smaller utility lines. In fact, the area in streets and length of utilities is 25% less than in the typical American street. The savings in cost not only paid for 12 - 14% of the total area that went into internal parks, but also covered the cost of grading and landscaping the play spaces and green links connecting the central block commons.

Failure of Radburn Planning 

  • The design of Radburn believed that people would actively use the front of the houses facing the greenways. In reality, people come and "leave" from the back of the houses and the vehicles, not pedestrian access. 
  • More people and children were walking and playing in the little driveways and cul-desacs than on the actual greenways. 
  • The market has repeatedly shown that homeowners prefer more personal land around their homes to living on tiny lots and sharing a large green space in common. 

    

Garden City

The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom and aims to capture the primary benefits of a countryside environment and a city environment while avoiding the disadvantages presented by both. 

Inspired by the utopian novel “Looking Backward” and Henry George's work “Progress and Poverty”, Howard published the book “To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform” in 1898 (which was reissued in 1902 as “Garden Cities of To-morrow”). His idealized garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres, planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail. 

Howard believed that all people agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time. It is important to understand the context to which Howard’s work was a reaction. London (and other cities) in the 19th century were in the throws of industrialization, and the cities were exerting massive forces on the labour markets of the time.

Massive immigration from the countryside to the cities was taking place with London. This situation was unsustainable and political commentators of all parties sought “how best to provide the proper antidote against the greatest danger of modern existence”. To Howard the cure was simple - to reintegrate people with the countryside. 

Concept of Three magnets 

He had no training in urban planning or design but excelled in creating places which he called “magnets” where people would want to come to reside and work. His garden cities were planned, contained communities surrounded by a green belt (parks), containing proportionate areas of residences, industry and agriculture. Garden city movement aimed at addressing the urban problems plaguing the industrial city of that time. Garden city concept was an effective response for a better quality of life in overcrowded and dirty industrial towns which had deteriorated the environment and posed serious threat to health. 

Garden city movement had the “Three Magnets” to addresses the question ‘Where will the people go?’ the choices being ‘Town’, ‘Country’ or ‘Town Country’.

Concept of three magnets

Town 

The pull of ‘Town Magnet’ are the opportunities for work and high wages, social opportunities, amusements and well – lit streets. It was closing out of nature, offered isolation of crowds and distance from work. But it came at a cost of foul air, costly drainage, murky sky and slums. Town life has good and bad characteristics. Positive and negative aspects of town include; 
  •  Social opportunity 
  •  Closing out of nature 
  •  Isolation of crowds 
  •  High rents and prices 
  •  Places of amusement 
  •  Foul air and murky sky 
  •  Chances of employment 
  •  Slums and gin palaces 
  •  High money wages 
  •  Costly drainage 
  •  Well-lit streets 
  •  Palatial edifices 

Country 

The pull of ‘Country Magnet’ is in natural beauty, fresh air, healthfulness. It offered natural beauty, low rents, fresh air, meadow but had low wages and lack of drainage. Country has dullness, lack of society, low wages, lack of amusements and general decay. Positive and negative aspects of town include; 
  •  Beauty of nature 
  •  Lack of society 
  •  Land lying idle 
  •  Hands out of work 
  •  Wood, meadow, forest 
  •  Trespassers beware 
  •  Fresh air 
  •  Low wages 
  •  Low rents 
  •  Lack of drainage 
  •  Abundance of water 
  •  Lack of amusement 
  •  Bright sunshine 
  •  No public spirit 
  •  Need for reform 
  •  Crowded dwellings 
  •  Deserted villages

Town- Country 

It was a combination of both town and countryside with aim of providing benefits of both and offered beauty of nature, social opportunity, fields if easy access, low rent, high wages and field of enterprise. Thus the solution was found in a combination of the advantages of Town and Country – the ‘Town Country Magnet’ – it was proposed a town in the country, and having within it the amenities of natural beauty, fresh air and healthfulness. Thus advantages of the Town – Country are seed to be free from the disadvantages of either. Town-country combination has the advantages of both aspects. 

  •  Beauty of nature 
  •  Peace all-over the places 
  •  Social opportunity 
  •  Cumulative growth 
  •  Fields and parks of easy access 
  •  Equal chances 
  •  Low rents- high wages 
  •  Low rates- plenty to do 
  •  Low prices- no sweating 
  •  Field for enterprise- flow of capital 
  •  Pure air and water- good drainage 
  •  Bright homes & gardens- no smoke, no slums 
  •  Freedom- co-operation

Principles of Garden City 

  • Co-operative holding of land to insure that the advantage of appreciation of land values goes to the community, not the private individuals 
  • Economic and social advantages of large scale planning 
  • Establishment of cities of limited size, but at the same time possessing a balanced agricultural industrial economy 
  • Urban decentralization 
  • Use of a surrounding green belt to serve as an agricultural recreational area

Features of Garden City 

An ideal garden city is a compact town of 6000 acres, 5000 of which is permanently reserved for agriculture. It accommodates a maximum population of 32,000. There are parks and private lawn everywhere. Also the roads are wide, ranging from 120 to 420 feet for the Grand Avenue, and are radial rather than linear. 
Commercial, industrial, residential, and public uses are clearly differentiated from each other spatially. Additional elements include unified land ownership –co-operatives, there was no individual ownership of land. Local community also participated in the decision making regarding development. As we can see in the diagram, there is a central park containing public buildings. It is surrounded by shopping streets which are further surrounded by dwelling units in all directions. The outer circle contains factories and industries. Rail road’s bypasses the town, meeting the town at tangent.
After a city reaches its target population, new interconnected nodes can be developed. A Garden city is built up and its population has reached 32,000. It will grow by establishing another city some little distance beyond its own zone of ‘country’, so that the new town may have a zone of country of its own.
Sir Ebenezer Howard’s Garden city

Circular city growing in a radial manner or pattern

  • Divided into six equal wards, by six main Boulevards that radiated from the central park/garden 
  • Civic institutions (Town Hall, Library, Hospital, Theatre, Museum etc. ) are placed around the central garden
  • The central park enclosed by a crystal palace acts as an arcade for indoor shops and winter gardens 
  • The streets for houses are formed by a series of concentric ringed tree lined avenues 
  • Distance between each ring vary between 3-5km 
  • A 420 feet wide, 3 mile long, Grand avenue which run in the center of concentric rings , houses the schools and churches and acts as a continuous public park 
  • The municipal railway was placed in another ring closer to the industrial ring, so that the pressure of excess transport on the city streets is reduced and the city is connected to the rest of the nation.

Main components of Howard’s Garden city movement 

1) Planned Dispersal 

The organized outward migration of industries and people to towns of sufficient size to provide the services, variety of occupations and level of culture needed by a balanced cross – section of modern society. 

2) Limit of Town Size 

The growth of towns to be limited, in order that their inhabitants may live near work, shops, social centers and each other and also near open country. 

3) Amenities 

The internal texture of towns to be open enough to permit of houses with private gardens, adequate space for schools and other functional purposes, and pleasant parks and parkways. 

4) Town and Country Relationship 

The town area to be defined and a large area around it reserved permanently for agriculture; thus enabling the farm people to be assured of a nearby market and cultural center, and the town people to have the benefit of a country situation. 

5) Planning Control 

Pre – planning of the whole town framework, including the road – scheme and functional zoning; the fixing of maximum densities; the control of building as to quality and design, but allowing for individual variety; skillful planting and landscape garden design. 

6) Neighborhoods 

The town to be divided into wards, each to some extent a developmental and social entity. Two garden cities were built using Howard’s garden city movement concept are Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in Hertfordshire, England. 

Letchworth Garden City 

The first garden city developed in 1903 by Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin was Letchworth garden city. It is 34 miles away from London. It has an area of 5000 acres with 3000 acres of green belt. It had an agricultural strip at periphery to check the invasion of urban area i.e. the sprawling. It showed Howard’s general principles, including the communal ownership of the land and the permanent green belt has been carried through. It was a town of homes and gardens with ample open spaces and a spirited community life. A great attention was paid to landscaping and planting.
  • Its plan was based on population of 30000 with living area of 1250 acres and 2500 acres of rural green belt. 
  • Communities ranged from 12000 – 18000 people, small enough which required no vehicular transportation. 
  • Industries were connected to central city by rapid transportation. 
  • In 30 years, the city developed with 15000 population and 150 shops, industries. 

Welwyn Garden City

It was the second garden city founded by Sir Ebenzer Howard and designed by Louis De Soissions in 1920 and was located 20 miles from London. It was a town visually pleasing and was efficient technically and was human in scale. 
  • It started with area of 2400 acres and 40000 populations. 
  • Had a parkway, almost a mile long central mall. 
  • Town laid out along tree-lined boulevards with Neo Georgian town center. 
  • Every road had a wide grass verge. 
  • In 15 years – developed with 10000 population and 50 shops, industries. 

Failure of Garden Cities

Letchworth slowly attracted more residents because it was able to attract manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space. Despite Howard’s best efforts, the home prices in this garden city could not remain affordable for workers to live in. Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not immediately inspire government investment into the next line of garden cities. In frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the second garden city in 1919. The Welwyn Garden City Corporation was formed to oversee the construction. But Welwyn did not become self-sustaining because it was only 20 miles from London. Even until the end of the 1930s, Letchworth and Welwyn remained as the only existing garden cities.

    

Land Use and Land Value Theory of William Alonso

William Alonso (Location and Land Use: Toward a General Theory of Land Rent, 1964) attempted to apply accessibility requirements to the city centre for various types of land use (housing, commercial, and industry). According to his theory, each land use type has its own rent gradient or bid rent curve. The curve sets the maximum amount of rent any land use type will yield for a specific location. Households, commercial establishments, and industries compete for locations according to each individual bid rent curve and their requirements for access to the city centre. 

All households will attempt to occupy as much land as possible while staying within their accessibility requirements. Since land is cheaper at the fringe of the city, households with less need for city centre accessibility will locate near the fringe; these will usually be wealthy households. Poor households require greater accessibility to the city centre and therefore will locate near the centre, competing with commercial and industrial establishments. This will tend to create a segregated land use system, because households will not pay commercial and industrial land prices for central locations In 1960 William Alonso completed his dissertation which extended the von Th√ľnen model to urban land uses. His model gives land use, rent, intensity of land use, population and employment as a function of distance to the CBD of the city as a solution of an economic equilibrium for the market for space.

                                                                                  Bid rent curve

Land Value 

Land value can be defined as the monetary cost of the land. It can be the cost of undeveloped land or a built property, but land value is primarily associated with a vacant plot. When discussing the importance of a built structure the term “property value” is more appropriate. 

Factors Affecting Land Value 

The land value is determined by the economic principle of highest and best use of land which produces the highest net return in any term, over a period. The property value is dependent on the structural attributes, land rates, land use and the location of the land. It is determined by the specific character of the land such as land use, location, accessibility, aesthetics, etc 

1) Physical Attributes 

These include quality of location, topography, climate, availability of water, sewer lines, etc. More and better facilities are attributed to a higher price of land. Topography further has a direct effect on the construction cost and thus the overall development cost. The facilities thus developed on an uneven land will have a much higher cost as compared to the flat plain. 

2) Accessibility to Economic Activities 

The more easily economic activity is accessible, the more is the value of the land. For example, most of the metropolitan cities have the maximum land values at the center, or at the central business district of the city. This is because of the nearness to the economic activities and workplace. This factor affecting land value is the sole most important factor which led to the development of various land price models in urban economics. 

3) Neighborhood Amenities 

The cost of land is also affected by the availability of the facilities such as shopping areas, medical facilities, school, parks& playgrounds, and other basic need of the humans. This helps in saving the time of people every day, the time saved adds up the cost of land. Also, the reduced travel and reduced trip distance will directly have the monetary benefits of the person residing in an area with many such facilities in proximity. 

4) Present and Future Land Use 

The value of the land is also determined by the land use permitted in the land premises. For example, if we compare the values of two lands of same prices and same location but the land use permitted in the lands are different, one is commercial and one is residential. In such case the value of the land with the land use which has more rate of return over a period of time will be valued more. People are willing to pay a higher amount for commercial land, in some cases industrial or institutional land use might attract even. 

5) Demand and Supply Function 

With the significant demographic changes in the cities with time, the need for land also increases with the same factor, with the increase in population there is an increase in economic and other activities. This directly increases the demand in the of the land components. The anticipation of high yields may also induce false scarcity of land; hence the location advantages of the properties at any time within the urban boundaries and hence causes economic values of land to be increased. For any site, there are specific points of transition in use, closely related to the infrastructure and services, where a jump in property value is likely to happen.

6) Location and Transport Linkages 

The property located in the area of high level of infrastructure facilities or the one located in or adjacent to the area of intensive economic activities such as markets or industries have higher values. Transport linkages are also crucial since they govern the mobility and ease of movement to and from the area. Clearly defined hierarchy of roads, efficient public transportation and lack of congestion are some of the desired transportation attributes of any area. 

Residential land values are also observed to be in direct proportion to the hierarchical order of the adjacent road. The valuation of land is done keeping in mind the factor mentioned above; however, the actual selling price of an area is ultimately determined by the paying capacity of the buyer. All the factors mentioned above-affecting land value might give a price which no one is willing to pay, and thus the actual amount paid becomes the price instead of the evaluated price. 

Land Use 

Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods. 

  • Residential land use 
  • Commercial land use 
  • Industrial land use 
  • Agricultural land use 
  • Recreational land use 
  • Transport space 
  • Public land use or Open space

    

Multiple Nuclei Theory

Multiple nuclei model of 1945 by C.D. Harris and Edward L. Ullman is based on the argument that the cities have multiple growth points or “nuclei” around which growth take place. This model was given in an article by them “The Nature of Cities”. This model is based on the structure of Chicago just like the Burgess model or Concentric zone model of 1925. It can be considered as an attempt to explain the structure of the city taking into account the complexity and growth over time. Harris and Ullman argued that a city might start with a single central business district (CBD), but over the time the activities scatter and gets modified. The scattered activities attract people from surrounding areas and act as smaller nuclei in itself. These small nuclei gain importance and grow in size and start influencing the growth of activities around them. The basic assumption of this theory is that "cities are not homocentric" but they rather have many mini centres which play a significant role in the development of a city. These mini centres originally developed independently with the specialized advantages that they offered or similar activities clustering in these areas. 

The need for this model was to provide a more realistic explanation of the cities. The influence of cars on personal travel and greater movement of goods offered opportunity in different places instead of concentrating all economic activities in one place. People started optimizing their business for maximum profit by locating at a different place and bringing down their rent with a slight increase in transportation cost. Whereas some activities like industrial areas create pollution and are thus preferred to be located away from residential areas. This model is considered to be more suitable for cities which are large and expanding.

Assumptions for Multiple Nuclei Model 

  • The land is not flat – This provides a more practical application of the multiple nuclei model and is an improvement over the Burgess model. It is difficult to find flat land for big cities, and the terrain features affects the activities, development and direction of growth of an urban area. 
  • Even distribution of resources – Resources are evenly distributed within the city, no one enjoys privileges or have exclusive access to resources. 
  • Even distribution of people in residential areas – People are distributed homogeneously and not concentrated in a particular area or pocket. This is essential as an unevenly distributed population has a direct impact on markets. 
  • Even transportation cost – Transportation cost is even in the city and not influenced by location. 
  • Profit maximization – A particular activity will locate itself where maximum profit can be earned. For this, a different combination of rent, transportation costs, labor cost, proximity to market may be tried, and the combination which yields the best result gives the final location for the activity. This location also takes into account the restrictions over the activity and the need to be separated from other non compatible activities such as locating residential areas away from industrial, locating large industries with more accessibility to reduce transportation cost and to ease the movement of goods.

                                                                 Multiple nuclei model 

Multiple nuclei theory is further divided into nine major areas. 

1) Central Business District 

2) Wholesale or light manufacturing 

3) Low income residential 

4) Medium income residential 

5) High income residential 

6) Heavy industry 

7) Outlying business district 

8) Residential suburb (Suburb - an outlying part of a city or town) 

9) Industrial suburb 

Limitations and criticism of the Multiple Nuclei Model

Multiple nuclei model was considered much better than the previous simple models which attempted to explain the structure of urban areas. However, this model also had its limitations and could not be applied to many cities and did not entirely explain the structure of urban areas. Formation of well-defined zones or “nuclei” required the considerable size of the city as the small or new towns do not have a very well defined location because of which they are usually scattered. Another drawback is the limited activities which are considered in the model along with the very rigid and specific boundaries of the activities. Some other disadvantages include: 

  • Negligence of the height of buildings. 
  • Non-existence of abrupt divisions between zones. 
  • Each zone displays a significant degree of internal heterogeneity and not homogeneity. 
  • Unawareness of inertia forces. 
  • No consideration of the influence of physical relief and government policy. 
  • The concepts may not apply to Asian cities with different cultural, economic and political backgrounds.




    

Sector Theory

Following Burgess, Homer Hoyt, an economist, propounded an alternative, proposition of urban structure and its growth pattern in 1939. Through sectors model, Hoyt tried to overcome the weaknesses of the earlier theory. Hoyt argued that cities do not develop in the form of simple rings, instead, they have “sectors”. It was mainly based on residential rent pattern and impacts of transportation development. This theory is the result of an empirical study of 34 American cities, in which he observed that high rent areas are located in one or more sectors of the city. He prepared a map showing how rent changed by sectors irrespective of concentric circle. Generating from the maps of housing features and land uses pattern of cities, he analyzed the impact of transportation the recreational areas and other changes. 

Homer Hoyt suggested that few activities grow in the form of sectors which radiates out along the main travel links. Activities in a sector are considered to be the same throughout the sector because of the purpose/function it serves. Land use within each sector would remain the same because like attracts like. The high-class sector would stay high-class because it would be the most sought after area to live, so only the rich could afford to live there. The industrial sector would remain industrial as the area would have a typical advantage of a railway line or river. These sectors can be housing, industrial activities, etc. These sectors grow along railway lines, highways or rivers.


                                                                   Sector model 

Components of Hoyt Model

a) CBD – Central Business District 

It is placed at the center. Sectors and the partial rings of land use/activities take place. This area is often known as downtown and has high rise buildings. Inner city area or downtown area is a complex and dynamic organism. It represents many layers of historic growth of many generations impact of cultural and traditions of men who inhabited the city as tourists. The combinations of these layers and the way they are held together in the city gives imageability, out of its socio-cultural heritage. As the cities expands and modern technology and scientific innovations transformed the style of living and also the structure of the city, open spaces were being eaten up by built forms resulting in congested and unhealthy environment. 

b) Industry 

Industries are represented in the form of a sector radiating out from the center. These forms sector because of the presence of a transport linkage along which the activities grew. Presence of railway line, river or road would attract similar activity, and thus a continuous corridor or “sector” will develop. 

c) Low-Class Residential 

Low-income groups reside in this area. Narrow roads, high population density, small houses with poor ventilation exist in this area. Roads are narrow and often connect to the industries where most of the people in this sector work. Closeness to industries reduces the travel cost and thus attracts industrial workers. Environmental and living conditions are often inadequate because of the proximity to factories. 

d) Middle-Class Residential 

This area has middle income groups who can afford more substantial travel cost and want better living conditions. The activities of people residing in this area consist of different activities and not just the industrial work. It has more linkages with CBD along with some linkages to industries. This area has the most significant residential area. 

e) High Class residential 

This is the outermost and farthest area from the downtown (CBD). Wealthy and affluent people live in this area. This area is clean, has less traffic, quiet and has large houses. Corridor or spine extending from CBD to the edge has the best housing. 

Features of sector model 

  •  Presence of low-income groups near industries supports Hoyt Model 
  • The Hoyt model realized that transportation (in particular) and access to resources caused a disruption of the Burgess model. 
  • Transport linkages profoundly influence activities and their locations. Low transportation cost and proximity to roads/railway reduce the cost of production. 
  • This model applies well to Chicago 
  • Account for major transportation routes and its effect on activities 

The significance of Hoyt Model 

  • Ecological factors and economic rent concept to explain the land use pattern 
  • Stress on the role of transport routes in affecting the spatial arrangement of the city 
  • Both the distance and direction of growth from the city center are considered 
  • Brings location of industrial and environmental amenity values as determinants in a residential place 
  • Example: Sectors of high-class residential areas tend to grow towards higher grounds, sites with a better view, more open space, the homes of influential leaders within the community and existing outlying, smaller settlements. 

Limitations of Sector Model 

  • Only Railway lines are considered for the growth of sectors and do not make allowances for private cars. 
  • It is a monocentric representation of cities; multiple business centers are not accounted for in this model. 
  • Physical features – physical features may restrict or direct growth along specific wedges 
  • No reference to out of town development 

Both sectors model and concentric zone, have the common concept of CBD i.e., the Central Business District and outward expansion. Where former differs in terms of differential radial growth from CBD or centre. He explained that sectors develop because of the difference in accessibility from outlying portions to the core region. Thus, it also includes the development of concentric patterns within the zone. 

Contrary to Burgess' Concentric Zone theory, the sectors theory assumes that land rents changes from Sector to Sector not in the form of successive concentric ring area. The development of a sector is determined by various factors, such as, planning, transportation, class character of residents and other facilities available to that particular sector. Within the residential sector it has been observed through study that the inner portions are found to be having older houses and newer constructions are found on the outer fringes.

    

Concentric Zone Theory

The Concentric zone (ring) model also known as the Burgess model is one of the earliest theoretical models to explain urban social structures. It was created by sociologist Ernest Burgess in 1925. He propounded the concentric zone theory in order to explain the structure and growth of city. The hypothesis of this theory is that cities grow and develop outwardly in concentric zones. In other words, the essence of the model is that as a city grows, it expands radically from its centre to different concentric circles or zones. 

Burgess offers a descriptive framework in which both aspects of human ecology - physical land use pattern and human relationships are implicit. Using Chicago as an example, Burgess viewed that as cities expand outwards, the interaction among people and their economic, social and political organizations also create radical expansion outward and form a series of concentric zones. The concentric model is based upon a process of invasion and succession. Invasion is a process which necessitates continual expansion of inner zones into outer zones, due to the natural 'aggression' of the migrant into the city. While succession occurs when an area becomes dominated by the activity invading that zone. 

There is competition in city among people for limited space. Only those can succeed who can afford best to pay and get the desirable location for their business and homes. Therefore, concentric zone theory reflects on going conflict between city dwellers and periphery villages. It also describes the process of concentration and segregation of social groups with the growth of city structure. According to this theoretical model there are five major concentric zones. These are as following: 

a) Commercial centre/Central Business District (CBD) 

b) Zone of transition 

c) Working class residence 

d) Middle1 higher class residence 

e) Commuter zone

                                                              Concentric Zone Model

a) Central Business District (CBD) 

The inner most ring zone or nucleus of the city is a commercial centre also called Central Business District (CBD). This zone is characterized by high intensity of commercial, social and civic amenities. It is the heart of the city which includes department stores, office buildings, shops, banks, clubs, hotels, theatres and many other civic buildings. Being the centre of commercial activities and location, it is accessible from all directions and attracts a large number of people. Therefore, it is a zone of the highest intensity land use and social interaction. High intensity of land use further indicates the high value of land and rents. 
As a result, the residential population in this zone is very small. People are always in search of cheaper, spacious and pollution free accommodation away from the core of the city. This is one of the reasons that the congested city area is deserted at weekends or on non-working days. 
Burgess further describes that the morphological structure of CBD is changing rapidly with our changing needs. Morphological structure of city includes buildings, roads and infrastructure. These rearrangements occur, in part, through demolition and new building construction. This is a continuous process of rebuilding since city began. Hence, it is obvious that older parts of the city are rebuilt and old land uses replaced.

 b) Zone of Transition 

Light Industries and slums mainly occupy this zone, may be seen in as many American cities. This zone was the home of numerous first generation immigrants. It has low income households, retrogressing neighbourhoods, one room houses and homeless men. It is a breeding place of crime, gambling, sexual vice and other social deviances. 
The physical deterioration and social disorganization leads to concentration of poor housing, poverty, juvenile delinquency, family disintegration, physical and mental diseases. Burgess studied Chicago city and he found the second concentric zone to be transitory in nature, comprising an area of residential deterioration due to congestion and encroachment. The zone surrounds the CBD area and fulfils their needs, like light industrial production and business extension houses. He also predicts that CBD will expand in this zone, as it will grow. 

c) Lower Working Class Residence 

Basically it is planned residential area, close to places of economic activity which often shift and moved to the outward rings. Being close to transition zone it is influenced by that zone, in terms of quality of life. It reflects the negative impact of industrial pollution and the cultural impact of slums. The working class residences subsequent outward rings are occupied by middle or higherclass residences. 

d) Middle Class Residence 

These may be separated in different rings in terms of class character and corresponding facilities. This is a residential area with all modern amenities of civic society. People who reside in these areas are native born Americans in single family houses or apartments. The houses are spacious in a pollution free zone. Sanitation, health facilities and all other requirements of a good quality life are found here. Proper transportation, communication and parking facilities are an added feature of this residential zone. The above features of this concentric zone clearly indicate a particular class character.

e) Commuter Zone 

It is located in the outermost concentric zone, beyond the area of higher class residence. This is a ring of encircling small cities, towns, and hamlets which taken together constitute the commuter zone. People from these areas commute on a daily basis towards the CBD or commercial centre for employment and business purposes but live in their small cities, towns and hamlets. Commuter zone is characterized by low density. It is relatively isolated and located in suburbs and satellite towns. Later on Burgess writes that there was no circle of towns or cities in the outer concentric zone of Chicago but a pattern of settlement existed along the railroads radiating out from CBD like spokes of a wheel. 

Limitations and Criticisms of Concentric zone model 

Concentric zone model is one of the simplest model available. This model accounts for the economic forces which drive development and the study of patterns present at the time of the study. But with the evolution and passage of time urban areas grew more complex and this model cannot define the development of existing cities. Some of the limitations and criticism include 
  • Although widely appreciated in the United States, Burgess model is not applicable outside the US. This is so, as the pattern of growth is different because of various circumstances. 
  • The relevance of this model decreased over time. With the advancement in the mode of transportation, mass transit vehicles, motor vehicles, cars changed the way people commute. Accordingly, their preference for living in a particular zone changed. 
  • It does not take into account the effect of political forces and the restrictions imposed by the government for the improvement of living conditions. 
  • In reality, no distinct zones and boundaries exist as overlapping of areas is possible in every town. The preference of people changes over time depending on the importance they associate for a particular benefit. 
  • This model is not applicable to polycentric cities as many CDB exists in such towns. Moreover, every city is different, and the factors influencing the growth of a city are diverse.

 

    

Theories of Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change. Urbanization is an irreversible process. Urban region or city had first been noted in the Indus valley civilization in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC 116 in India. Hence one can say that there are several urban theories and some of which go back to the time of initial civilization. Most urban theories are derived ones some of which are: 
1. Suburbanization 
2. The dependency theory 
3. Theory of spatial disparities 
4. Migration theories 
a) Buffer’s theory of migration 
b) Stouffer’s law of intervening opportunities 
c) Migration theory of neo-classical economists 
d) Push and pull theories of migration 
e) Urban bias theory 
5. Lewis two sector model 
6. Concentric zone theory 
7. Bid rent theory 
8. Modern theory of urbanization 
9. Theory of evolutionary ladder of development 
10. Writh’s essay on “Urbanization: A typology of Changes”

1. Suburbanization 

Suburbanization means “beyond the city” thus it refers to peripheral areas of large cities around the world. As cities grow, it expands towards outskirt areas and thus peripheral or suburban areas develop and grow. Cities expand towards peripheral area due to high density, increasing urban land price, pollution and well developed transport and communication facilities. It is the responsibility of urban government to provide basic amenities in these areas as these suburban areas may not necessarily have a separate political unit. 

2. Dependency Theory 

The dependency theory argues that urban regions could establish expand and develop only if agriculture is well developed. The developing countries are sources of input for developed countries. Hence developing countries receive larger foreign investment in agriculture as well as non-agricultural sectors. Developed agriculture pushed rural farmer and labourer while developing industries attract labourer due to large employment scope in urban areas.

3. Theory of Spatial Disparities 

Spatial disparities theory states that disparities are created due to variation in geographically advantaged and disadvantaged regions, political importance of a city, economically favorable policies etc. Spatial forms divided the society. The problem of spatial disparities further leads to migration which creates pressure on urban amenities. 

4. Migration Theories 

Migration can be both a problem and a solution for various urban regions. There are several migration theories, some of them are discussed below. 

a) Buffer Theory of Migration 

Buffer theory of migration stated that “the workers who are imported on temporary base due to creation of short fall of labourer will return” However, it is not appropriate to make such assumption that labourer will go back. Migration cannot applicable always as adjustment mechanism. Hence, the Buffer’s migration law is not practical. 

b) Stouffer’s Law of Intervening Opportunities 

It states that “The number of persons going a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at that distance and inversely proportional to the number of intervening opportunities”. Stouffer explained that between the final destination and departure place if there are good opportunities them the migrant will settle down in between rather than their planned final destination. Stouffer argues that the volume of migration had less to do with distance and population than with the availability of opportunities in each location. 

c) Migration Theory of Neo-Classical Economists 

Neo- Classical economist argues that the main reason for labour migration is wage difference between two geographic locations. These wage difference are usually due to labour demand and supply in specific geography. 

d) Push and Pull Factors Theory 

The push and pull theory is based on various push and pull factors. Push factors are those things/ factors which are unfavorable about the specific area that one lives in and hence push them to move away from that particular area. Pull factors are those things that attract one to another area due to various reasons. Push factors can be less of employment opportunities, natural disaster, war, pollution, poor, housing etc. and pull factors can be better employment opportunities, better living conditions, healthy environment etc. 

e) Urban Bias Theory 

It is emphasizing on political perspective of urban regions. This theory argues that government policies favour the urban regions. While the amenities are provided on a larger scale in urban areas but the larger proportion of the population is found in rural areas of a country. Hence, there is migration from rural to urban areas. 

5. Lewis Two Sector Model 

Industrialization with the support of specialization supports urbanization process. Lewis presents two sector model of development with high productivity of modern urban industrial sectors. Lewis assumes that abundant labourer in agriculture can be absorbed in labour scarce industrial units. However agricultural migrants cannot always support and help these industries to grow. Hence the major limitation of Lewis model is the assumption that rural and agricultural labourer are having skills and ability to get employment in urban industries. 

6. Concentric Zone Theory 

Ernest Burgess with Chicago sociologist Robert Park put forward concentric zone theory of urbanization 

7. The Bid Rent Theory 

The Bid Rent Theory (BRT) theory is theory of geographical economy. It is based on geographical location rather than productivity of land. It refers to price and demand for real estate. The BRT explained that different land users would compete with one another for land close to the city centre. This theory is based upon the reasoning that the more is the accessible area (i.e. the greater the concentration of customers). It is higher the chance of earning more profit. Hence, to have land in inner city or central business district land users are willing to pay high price. This price of land paid by various users is known as “Bid Rent”.
 Bid rent theory

The above graph clearly indicates that commercial sectors are ready to pay higher rent so that they can establish near central business district as it is more accessible to larger population. Industry prefers next outer ring where rent is comparably low and still easily connected with commercial sector and with market. Residents and residential areas can be away from central business district. They can be in the outer most ring or peripheral areas. Bid rent and concentric zone theory assumed that inner city is wealthy and peripheral area is poorer. However, many cities around the world indicate the trend which is otherwise.

8. Modern Theory of Urbanization 

Modern theory was developed in the mid 20th century. It presented an idea that economic development is possible only if industries develop and expand by the introduction and use of advanced methods of production and use of modern technologies. According to modern school, the view which is shared by the classical economist, there cannot be urbanization without industrialization. 

9. Theory of Evolutionary Ladder of Development 

To understand stages of urbanization, Walter Rostow’s evolutionary ladder of development and Warren Thomas demographic transaction can be combined and presented as: 
a) Traditional Society (Pre-modern) 
b) Pre-take off (Industrialization / Transitional) 
c) Take off stage (Mature industrial / Industrial) 
d) Stage of Maturity (Post industrial) 
e) High Mass Consumption 
In the first and second stage, society is a traditional one. Larger proportion of population lives in rural areas. Third stage is ‘take off’ stage modern and new technologies are employed by industries to increase production. Manufacturing becomes important. This changes and growth however is concentrated in few regions only. Demographically, in this stage the death rate falls and birth rate still remains high. In terms of urbanization, a large proportion of population migrates to areas where manufacturing activities are concentrated for employment. 
The fourth stage ‘drive to maturity’ in this stage there is spread of technology into all parts of the economy. The demographic transition associated with the stage sees declined death rates, while birth rates drop at a faster than death rates. Urbanization at this point continues to progress since more and more people move to urban centers for jobs. 
The final stage is known as ‘high mass consumption’ and is characterized by the economy forcing on durable consumer goods like car instead of production of heavy industries like heavy machines with high personal incomes. Focus is no durable economic activities rate than basic need. The final stage of demography indicates negative or zero population growth. At this point, urbanization begins to level off because at this stage countries experience development that has reached 80% urban population mark. 

10. Writh’s Essay on Urbanism as a Way of Life 

Louis Writh’s in his essay “Urbanism as a way of life” emphasis as that urbanism is a matter of physical residence and urbanization is a social phenomenon. Moreover, Writh also questions the most common indicator adopted for the measurement of urbanization around the world i.e. population numbers.
    

Major Regional Problems and their Solutions in India

1) Corruption 

Political corruption is the most widely spread endemic in India, which must be handled quickly and wisely. There is hardly any office, in both private and public sector, that is untouched from this disease. There is no telling how much loss has the economy suffered because of this. Though most of us are concerned, when the time comes to act, we, the people of India, are found lacking. 

2) Basic Hygiene 

Sanitation is yet another problem, but one of the biggest, in India. There are about 700 million people who have no access to toilets at home. Slum areas do not have toilets. People are thus forced to defecate in open, which causes numerous diseases like diarrhea, cholera, dehydration etc. Many rural schools also have no toilets, because of which parents do not send their kids, especially girls, to school. A growing population is the biggest challenge causing these problems. For example, the sewage system in Delhi was designed to meet the needs of a population of three million people. But Delhi now has more than 14 million of population. This is not just the case of Delhi; every state and region in India is the same. 

3) Education System 

The education system of India is blamed every now and then for being too theoretical but not practical and skill-based. Students study to score marks, not to gain knowledge. This so called modern education system was introduced by the colonial masters to create servants who could serve but not lead and we still have the same education system. 

4) Health Care System 

It is true that world’s the most populous democratic country cannot provide proper health care facilities to its entire population. India is becoming a hub for medical tourism but all these facilities are not available to local residents, who are poor. Healthcare is a neglected issue in India, as major attention drawers are agriculture, infrastructure and IT. Lack of resources in rural India is a major concern of the day, leading to most of the problems. 50% of all villagers have no access to healthcare providers, 10% of babies die within a year of their birth due to lack of nutrition caused stunned growth in 50% of all the babies. 

5) Pollution 

Pollution and environmental issues are the other challenges that India is facing at present. Though India is working hard, there is a long way to go. Degradation of land, depleting natural resources and loss of biodiversity are the main issues of concern due to pollution. Untreated sewerage is the major cause of water pollution. The Yamuna river is today one of the most polluted rivers in India. Same is the condition of other rivers that pass through populated cities. 

6) Illiteracy 

The percentage of illiteracy in India is alarming. Every five persons among ten in India are illiterate. The condition in villages is worse than in cities. Though a number of primary schools have been set up in rural India, the problem persists. Also, providing education just to children won’t solve the problem of illiteracy, as many adults in India are also untouched by education. 

7) Woman Safety 

Both men and women enjoy equal opportunities, but as far as freedom and safety of women is concerned, India lags behind. Issues like domestic violence, rape cases, portrayal of women in media etc., must be tackled immediately. 

8) Infrastructure Facilities 

India needs to work swiftly on its infrastructure towards better roads and services like water, sanitation etc. 

9) Poverty 

A third of the world’s poor live in India, and 37% of the total population in India lives below the international poverty line. 42% of children under five years of age are underweight. Most of the poor in India live in villages. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal have the poorest areas. High level of illiteracy, lack of healthcare facilities and limited access to resources are some of the basic problems in poor areas. 

10) Water Scarcity 

India’s large population places a severe strain on its natural resources and most of its water sources are contaminated by sewage and agricultural run-off. . Much of the run-off water goes waste and the infiltration rate is also low. If this water can be harvested, not only the run-off water can be stored, but subsoil water reserves can also become rich. While progress has been made, gross disparities in access to safe water remain. The World Bank estimates that 21% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water and diarrhea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths daily. 

11) Transparency 

The vast majority of Indians say transparency is their number one concern, according to polls before the recent election, with figures peaking at over 90% among young voters. People are right to be concerned. Transparency issues are not just a daily irritation, they are a drag on the whole economy, hampering competitiveness, growth and development. 

12) Religious Conflicts 

India is characterized by more ethnic and religious groups than most other countries of the world. Three ethnic or religious conflicts have stood out of late: two occurred in the states of "Assam and Punjab; another, the more widely known Hindu-Muslim conflict, continues to persist. The Assam problem is primarily ethnic, the Punjab problem is based on both religious and regional conflicts, while the Hindu-Muslim problem is predominantly religious. 

13) Lack of Employment and Opportunities 

India may be the fastest growing major economy in the world but that may mean little to the country’s 127 crore people, many of whom continue to struggle to find the right kind of jobs. India’s unemployment rate stood at 5% in 2015-2016 compared to 3.8% in 2012-2013, according to the fifth annual survey of employment-unemployment published by ministry of labour and employment. 

14) Urbanization 

More than one-third of Indians live in cities. It is estimated that, by 2050, as many as 900 million people will be living in urban centres. Meeting their needs while safeguarding the environment will require innovative models of urban development. 

15) Terrorism 

Terrorism in India, according to the Home Ministry, poses a significant threat to the people of India. Compared to other countries, India faces a wide range of terror groups.
    

Spatial Planning

Spatial planning is rooted over space or territory. It is a kind of regional planning where planning is made on certain physical as well as socio cultural and economic region. It refers to the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. Spatial planning includes land use, urban, regional, transport and environmental planning. Other related areas are also important, including economic and community planning. Spatial planning takes place on local, regional, national and international levels and often result in the creation of a spatial plan. Spatial economic development is a vital part of government’s national economic policy focus.

Good policy choices and well executed planning can ensure balanced economic development of a nation and can help to address marginalization and poverty, particularly in rural areas. Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organization of space according to an overall strategy. The main characteristics include

  •          Spatial planning focuses only in the overall development of certain region
  •          It is an approach in regional planning
  •          Spatial planning put emphasis on socio-economic development of the region
  •          It varies from one region to other
  •          It is more holistic in nature
  •          It is more objective
  •          Spatial planning is much applicable in developing as well as under developed countries