Resource regions

Natural resources are material and constituent formed within environment or any matter or energy that are resulting from environment, used by living things that humans use for food, fuel, clothing and shelter. These comprise of water, soil, minerals, vegetation, animals, air and sunlight. People require resources to survive and succeed. Everything which happens naturally on earth are natural resources that is minerals, land, water, soil, wind that can be used in many ways by human being.
The total cultivable area in India is 19,45,355 km² (56.78% of its total land area), which is shrinking due to population pressures and rapid urbanisation. India's major mineral resources include Coal (4th largest reserves in the world), Iron ore, Manganese ore (7th largest reserve in the world as in 2013), Mica, Bauxite (5th largest reserve in the world as in 2013), Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Limestone and Thorium. The major resource region in India include

1) Western Himalayan Region

This region consists of three distinct sub zones of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh hills. Lands of the region have steep slopes in undulating terrain. Soils are generally silty loams and these are prone to erosion hazards.

2) Eastern Himalayan Region

Sikkim and Darjeeling hills, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Assam and Jalpaiguri and cooch bihar districts of West Bengal fall under this region, with high rainfall and high forest cover. Shifting cultivation is practiced in nearly one third of the cultivated area and this has caused denudation and degradation of soils with the resultant heavy runoff, massive soil erosion and floods in the lower reaches and basins.

3) Lower Gangetic Plain Region

This region consists of West Bengal. Soils are mostly alluvial and flood prone.

4) Middle Gangetic Plain Region

This region consists of 12 districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh and 27 districts of Bihar plains. This region has a geographical area of 16 million hectares and rainfall is high. About 39% of gross cropped area is irrigated and cropping intensity is 142%.

5) Upper Gangetic Plain Region

This zone consists of 32 districts of Uttar Pradesh. Irrigation is through canals and tube wells. A good potential for exploitation of ground water exists.

6) Trans Gangetic Plain Region

This zone consists of Punjab, Haryana, Union territories of Delhi and Chandigarh and Sriganganagar district of Rajasthan. The major characteristics of this area are highest net sown area, highest irrigated area, high cropping intensity and high ground water utilization.

7) Eastern Plateau and Hills Region

This zone consists of eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh, southern part of West Bengal and most of inland Orissa. The soils are shallow and medium in depth and the topography is undulating. Irrigation is through tanks and tube wells.

8) Central Plateau and Hills Region

This region consists of most parts of Madhya Pradesh and south eastern Rajasthan. This region has undulating topography with sandy soils.

9) Western Plateau and Hills Region

This zone comprises the major part of Maharashtra, parts of Madhya Pradesh and one district of Rajasthan. The average annual rainfall of the zone is 904 mm. The net sown area is 65% and forests occupy 11%. The irrigated area is only 12.4% with canals being the main source.

10) Southern Plateau and Hills Region

This zone comprises 35 districts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu, which are typically semi-arid zones. Dry land farming is adopted in 81% of the area.

11) East Coast Plains and Hills Region

This zone comprises of east coast of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. Soils are mainly alluvial and coastal sands. Irrigation is through canals and tanks.

12) West Coast Plains and Ghats Region

This zone comprises west coast of Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Goa with a variety of crop patterns, rainfall and soil types.

 13) Gujarat Plains and Hills Region

This zone consists of 19 districts of Gujarat. This zone is arid with low rainfall in most parts and only 32.5% of the area is irrigated largely through wells and tube wells.

14) Western Dry Region

This zone comprises 9 districts of Rajasthan and is characterized by hot, sandy desert, erratic rainfall, high evaporation and scanty vegetation. The ground water is deep and often brackish. Drought is the common feature of the region.

15) Islands Region

This zone covers the island territories of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadeep, which are typically equatorial with rainfall of 3000 mm spread over 8-9 months. It is largely a forest zone with undulating lands. Depending on the variation in ecological characteristics of one region from the other, they have different types of vegetation, which suits best to their ecological conditions.



Post a Comment