Town Planning Process

All stages of actions from defining the objectives till implementation and review of any planning project in the planning process. In plan preparation, the physical planning should associate with the socio-economical, geographical, political factors, for achieving the objective in desired direction. The various stages of planning process are as follows.
1.Identification and definition of problems 
Various problems with reference to the results obtained by studies and surveys and with reference to the objectives are identified.
2. Defining the objectives
Here the objectives of the planning are identified. The general objectives of any planning of urban area is
  •     To regulate growth
  •     To nullify the bad effects of past growth
  •     To improve the transportation facilities
  •     To optimize the resources utilization
  •     To balance population and economic activities
  •     To promote social integration among different   categories
  •    To promote a convenient comfortable, beautiful and healthy environment

3. Studies and survey
The following studies and surveys are taken up for plan preparation.
  •  Identification of growth(physical, economical, social, cultural, institutional, administrative and political)
  •    Identification of trend and direction of growth
  •    Traffic survey
  •    Study on demography
  •    Climate

4. Analysis of data and preparation of study maps
The data obtained is analyzed – observations and conclusions have to be derived out of the studies and surveys. The short-term objectives and long-term objectives are identified – various study maps, charts and graphs are prepared.
5. Fore-casting
Period of demographic projection is prescribed. Forecasting of about migration, employment, industrialization and other rapid urbanization possibilities are to be made.
6. Design
This is an important aspect in the planning process. Need to relate existing pattern, interactions and trends is to be examined. Preparation of development plans, formulation of zones, alteration to the existing zoning regulations, widening of roads etc. are made in detail here. Alternatives are also made for effective and quick implementation of plan. The plan should also be able to cope with sudden and unexpected events. Possibility of changing from one strategy to another should be designed at the same time keeping in view its practicability and the total expenditure involved.
7. Fixation of priorities
Since all the proposals cannot be taken up at one time due to financial and administrative difficulties, priorities should be fixed for taking up the implementation depending upon the importance and urgency.
 8. Implementation
Implementation is the most important stage where all the earlier efforts to prepare plan is to be put into practice to achieve the objectives. The authority, which takes up the implementation, is to fulfill all the required legal obligations in time – zoning regulations, land acquisition for road widening and for other purposes is taken-up.
 9. Review, evaluation and feedback
The work of implementation has to be monitored by taking – up periodical inspections and obtaining review reports. Feedback is essential periodically. The plan should be flexible for modifications depending upon the necessities.
Types of Surveys
Surveys can broadly be divided into two categories depending on the area upon which they are to be conducted. They are:
1. Regional Surveys
They are those surveys, which are done over a region dealing with physical factors like topography, physically difficult land, geology, landscape etc. Physical economic factors like agricultural value of the land, mineral resources and water gathering lands, areas with public services, transportation linkages etc. Social economic factors like areas of influence of towns and villages, employment, population changes etc.
2. Town Surveys
They are done at much small scale and apart from the above data collected from the regional surveys it also includes
  •    Land use surveys
  •    Density surveys
  •    Surveys for the age and condition of the buildings
  •    Traffic surveys

Other social surveys for conducting proper survey, primarily relevant enquiries should be framed in the form of questionnaires for presentation, when required.
Techniques of Surveys
1. Self-surveys (i.e. mailing questionnaires to the persons to be surveyed )
2. Interviews (i.e. by asking questions to the people to be surveyed )
3. Direct inspection (i.e. when the surveyor himself inspects the situations concerned )
4. Observers participation(i.e. when the observer himself participate in acquiring the data
Approaches to Planning
1. Comprehensive planning
The traditional four-step planning process - the identification of problems and issues; the establishment of goals and objectives; data collection and analysis; and plan preparation and implementation.
2. Issue-oriented planning
Some communities do not get around to planning until a problem or a crisis has occurred. Issue-oriented planning focuses attention on the problems and issues of greatest concern to a community at a   particular point in time. This is an “old-fashioned   approach” to planning, 
3. Functional planning
Functionalplanning is a slower version of comprehensive planning.
4. Strategic planning
Major emphasis should be placed on the selection and application of strategies to resolve identified issues and attain desired goals. The principal steps in strategic planning are
  • Scan the environment and select key issues.
  • Formulate goals or missions for the key issues.
  • Analyze each issue, developing a list of community strengths and weaknesses.
  • Develop strategies that are realistic and take into account those strengths and weaknesses.
  • Implement strategies using public and private resources.
  • Monitor and update the plan to ensure implementation.

5. Vision-based planning
Imagines what a community should look like in the future and then develops a plan to achieve that vision. This visioning process is unique, but it is often included as an element of a variety of master plans. It is a positive approach to planning and can be very inspiring.
6. Urban planning (urban, city, and town planning)
It is a technical and political process concerned with the control of the use of land and design of the urban environment, including transportation networks, to guide and ensure the orderly development of settlements and communities.
Elements of City/Town  Planning
1.  Communication & Transportation
2.  Built up Area
3.  Open space (Parks, Playgrounds, Recreational unit)
4.  Public utility services  (Electricity, Gas, Telephone, Fire safety)
5.  Public amenities (Post office, Bank, Police, Solid waste disposal, Petrol pump, Court)



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